The use of physics pocketbook based on augmented reality on planetary motion to improve students’ learning achievement


Nadi Suprapto1 , Handal Setyo Ibisono1 , Husni Mubarok2

1Universitas Negeri Surabaya (Indonesia)
2National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)

Received November 2020

Accepted June 2021


Planetary motion in physics learning is an abstract concept and requires high reasoning. This article is one of the augmented realities (AR)-based pocketbook development on the planetary motion, focusing on student learning achievement. The study used the ADDIE model: Analysis‑Design‑Development‑Implementation‑Evaluation”. In the Spring Semester 2020, researchers took these steps in producing an AR-based pocketbook on planetary motion materials. The trial carried out on 30 students (57% girls and 43% boys, with age 16-17) at a public high school in Surabaya, Indonesia. Evaluation parameters included the quality of the AR-based pocketbook, students’ learning achievement, and research outputs. Data analysis techniques used descriptive statistics, N-gain score, and independent t-test. The results showed that: (1) the process of developing an AR-based pocketbook on planetary motion fulfilled the product quality criteria: validity, practicality, and effectiveness; (2) students’ learning achievement increase as seen from the results of the pretest-posttest scores with the average Gain score was 0.63 in the moderate category in which the boys perform better than the girls; (3) through the development of an AR-based pocketbook, it resulted in some articles in journals and pocketbook media based on Augmented reality. Therefore, this study’s recommendation is to use AR as a media for learning in other abstract physics concepts.


Keywords – Student learning achievements, Augmented reality, Physics, Planetary motion.

To cite this article:

Suprapto, N., Ibisono, H.S., & Mubarok, H. (2021). The use of physics pocketbook based on augmented reality on planetary motion to improve students’ learning achievement. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 11(2), 526-540.



    1. 1. Introduction

The direction of technological development has again entered the education field, such as the classroom’s learning process. This technological development has presented several online learning materials in science and other areas that involve “learning in various contexts through social interaction and content using personal electronic devices” (Crompton, 2013). One of the personal electronic devices as a learning media in the classroom is augmented reality technology. The focus of this research is physics learning media assisted by augmented reality.

It is not easy to perform an abstract concept in the classroom. In other words, this is a challenge for educators worldwide to develop learning media to make it easier to explain the material, especially in learning fields that require a reasonably high understanding like physics content. In physics, students are trained to think to study a phenomenon logically and mathematically. Students are expected to have an excellent conceptual understanding so that learning physics objectives can be adequately achieved (Gunawan, Nisrina, Suranti, Herayanti & Rahmatiah, 2018). In physics learning, understanding the concepts in every physics context is required (Husnaini & Chen, 2019; Suprapto, Nandyansah & Mubarok, 2020). Therefore, the method of delivering the teacher’s material is very influential in shaping the students’ concepts of physics lessons (Adam & Suprapto, 2019). One of the technologies in the multimedia field, which developing and can make it easier to explain the concept of physics is Augmented Reality (AR) (Abdusselam & Karal, 2020; Bakri, Permana, Wulandari & Muliyati, 2020; López-Belmonte, Pozo-Sánchez, Fuentes-Cabrera & Romero-Rodríguez, 2020; Nandyansah, Suprapto & Mubarok, 2020).

AR is a technology capable of realizing objects in the virtual world into the real world and converting 2D objects into 3D objects (Arslan, Kofoğlu & Dargut, 2020; Permana, Tolle, Utaminingrum & Dermawi, 2019). Kustijono and Hakim (2014) stated that AR was an attempt to combine the real world and the virtual world created employing a computer so that the boundary between the two becomes very thin. The AR application can make 2D animated objects into 3D animation so that these objects become real. AR technology can be used to design a concept of information from paper-based to be video. The system built was able to recognize markers and display videos that were loaded via URL (Marneanu, Ebner & Rößler, 2014; Sing, Ibrahim, Weng, Hamzah & Yung, 2020). Therefore, this technology needs printed media, such as pocketbooks, as support.

Some previous researches concerned with the use of augmented reality in various existing methodological approaches in the teaching of physics, such as problem-based learning (Fidan & Tuncel, 2019), inquiry‑based learning (Radu & Schneider, 2019), and teaching with interactive books (Dünser, Walker, Horner & Bentall, 2012). However, this study focuses on the use of AR in the teaching of physics abstract concept.

In the education field, AR can attract, motivate, and provide real visuals for someone in understanding a material that requires high enough reasoning and imagination in understanding a material concept (Lee, 2012). Therefore, objects in learning that have only been imagined or only listed on printed media in 2D can be realized using AR to improve student learning outcomes (Chen & Wang, 2015). AR was developed to use several supporting applications in its manufacture, such as a 3D blender, which helps create 3D objects; vuphoria helps make markers to be used, and unity for combining 3D animation with markers has been made.

The AR output can be installed directly on an Android smartphone (Marneanu et al., 2014). The operation of the AR media application is straightforward; when opening the AR application, it will appear on the smartphone camera, which can be directed directly at the supporting pocketbook, and a marker is available that will be detected by the application so that 3D animated objects will appear on the smartphone screen. As shown in Figure 1, is a mechanism to operate the AR application.

One way to obtain a comprehensive literature review is to close the findings of previous research by checking the relevant previous empirical publications to obtain the development of a treasure trove of related knowledge, especially about augmented reality. Through Figures 2 to 4, the authors try to give a whole picture of how previous researchers concern with AR. Figure 2 depicts the research trends of augmented reality based on the Scopus database from the beginning until 2020 as preliminary research conducted by the authors. The data was recorded on 30 September 2020. There are five significant clusters on the research of AR: the use of a quantitative method in dealing with AR (yellow color), the technology behind AR application (purple color), the process of developing AR including validity and strategy (red color), a systematic review on AR (blue color), AR and virtual environment (green color).


Figure 1. Mechanism of handbook used augmented reality


Figure 2. Research trends on augmented reality based on Scopus database

Meanwhile, Figure 3 is specifically on how AR relates to academic achievement. It was clear that many researchers explore how the use of AR in predicting academic achievement (see Ibáñez, Portillo, Cabada & Barrón, 2019; Sirakaya & Cakmak, 2018). Therefore, this study that uses a physics pocketbook based on AR on the planetary motion improves students’ learning achievement. It is still in the research area of researchers in the world.


Figure 3. AR in relating to academic achievement


Figure 4. AR in relating to production process

On the other hand, Figure 4 illustrates the production process of AR. It means many researchers still focus on developing some aspects of AR, including validity, practicality, and effectivity. In line with this research, it begins with developing a pocketbook for physics concepts assisted by AR technology. So that through this development, research will enrich the scientific treasures related to the development of pocketbooks with AR technology in the field of study. Figure 4 also clearly shows how AR technology’s development or production is closely related to student achievement. Figures 2 to 4 supported the idea of this research that considers the use of AR in improving students’ learning achievement.

The augmented reality-based pocketbook was developed to facilitate students to more easily understand abstract material concepts and require much imagination, such as the concept of learning physics on planetary motion material. The main research questions in the development of this research were (1) Does the pocketbook based on augmented reality on planetary motion material meet the product quality criteria (validity, practicality, and effectiveness)? (2) To what extent do the performance of pocketbook base on augmented reality in planet motion? (3) To what extent do student achievement results after participating in learning using a pocketbook based on augmented reality? These three main questions are the explanation of the evaluation parameters that refer to this research.

2. Method

This study used an ADDIE model in designing a learning system (Adam & Suprapto, 2019). The ADDIE is an abbreviation from “Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation”. The advantage of the ADDIE model is a systematic work procedure. Each step always refers to the previous step that has been corrected to obtain an effective product. Visually, the ADDIE model stages can be seen in Figure 5.

This research aimed to analyze, design, development, implement and evaluate the physics pocketbook based on augmented reality. In the analysis stage, the authors analyzed instructional media’s needs through interviews and questionnaires given to teachers and students. In the design stage, the authors made a design or media design prototype. In the development stage, the authors realized a prototype in a pocketbook and an AR application with the Android operating system. Then perform the validation test by material and media experts.


Figure 5. ADDIE development model scheme

In the implementation stage, this study developed a pocketbook based on AR as a learning media for physics with Android support for planetary motion. The authors need six months to develop the application. The steps in developing AR are as follows:


Figure 6. The specific steps in developing AR (Suprapto & Nandyansah, 2021)

2.1. The Development Process of Pocketbook Based Augmented Reality

Based on the method’s explanation, research on the development of the pocketbook based on Augmented Reality to improve student learning achievement has been carried out using the ADDIE research design (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation). The following is an explanation of the stages of developing an Augmented Reality-based pocketbook.

Analysis: it was the stage to see any differences or gaps between the desired development of an academic world and the existing reality. The hope is that in the world of education, they should have used technology, especially AR media, to facilitate teachers to explain abstract concepts and help students understand conceptual material better. The use of technology, especially AR media, was still rarely applied by an educator or students in education. Even AR technology in the physics field of planetary motion material yet did not exist. This statement was supported by the results of a questionnaire conducted on 30 students. As many as 40% responded to the frequency of using the application of learning media in learning physics, the use of technology, including AR, has never been done in learning and physics material, especially on the planetary motion was still abstract and challenging to understand.


Figure 7. Interface design of augmented reality

Design: Before creating a pocketbook and AR application, the researchers made a media design based on the results of the analysis. The next step, the researchers started to made pocketbooks and AR applications that had been approved and in the seminar. The following was one of the designs created by the researchers, presented in Figure 7.

Development: At this stage, the media has been completed, the researchers conducted the validation stage of the AR-based pocketbook media and learning tools to two lecturers and one physics teacher before the media was realized in the learning process.

Implementation: At the implementation stage during the Covid-19 pandemic, an AR-based pocketbook was applied to online learning planet motion material to 30 students who were observed by school teachers and two assistants (student-teachers) from the University in Surabaya using observation sheets used to analyze the practicality of the media. Before students took part in learning using AR-based pocketbook media, a pretest was carried out first, after students participated in the learning, a posttest was carried out where the results of the pretest and posttest were used to see the increase in student learning performance which was analyzed using the Gain score.

Evaluation: The results of the evaluation phase was used to determine the effectiveness of AR-based media. Based on Hake’s statement, if the Gain score results obtained were ≥ 0.3 (see Hake, 1998 in the moderate category, then the media was declared effective in improving student learning achievement.

The targets in this study were 30 students in grade ten age 16-17. The distribution of the students are 57% girls and 43% boys with all students with medium in socioeconomic status (SES). The research design used in this study was a one-group pretest-posttest design. Thus, there is only one group and no control group in this study. The treatment of the research included a pretest at the beginning and a posttest at the end of the lesson. The method of the tests carried out through the pretest and posttest was to determine the increase in student learning achievement. The normality test with a significance level of 5% on the pretest and posttest results to determine the data obtained was normally distributed.

After the pretest and posttest results were obtained, the results were analyzed using Gain score analysis with the formula presented in Equation 1 (Hake, 1998; Wang & Chyi-in, 2004; Wayne & Youngs, 2003). Meanwhile, the mean difference across gender was analyzed using an independent t-test.




g         = gain score

Sr         = posttest score

Si         = pretest score

Smax        = maximum score

Gain score interval


g > 0.7


0.3 ≤ g ≤ 0.7


g < 0.3


Table 1. Criteria of Gain score (Hake, 1998)

Based on Table 1, the Gain score interpretation criteria, the AR-based pocketbook was declared effective if the results of the students’ pretest and posttest after being analyzed using Gain score get a range of ≥ 0.3 in the medium to high category.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. The Performance of Pocketbook based Augmented Reality in Planet Motion

On the topic listed in the pocketbook based on AR about planetary motion, it can be analogized if the planets move around the sun in a trajectory approaching a circle. All planets and other celestial bodies, including the earth, move according to their trajectory (orbit) around the sun (Mubarok & Aliyah, 2019). Of course, there is a force holding these objects towards the center of their path. To explain this phenomenon, Newton proposed the theory of universal gravity. Universal means that it applies to all objects in the universe. Every object in the universe exerts an attraction force (Serway, 2018). In physics, the order of the universe can be explained based on Kepler’s laws and Newton’s laws of gravity.

Explanation of Kepler’s Law using a pocketbook media based on AR: Johannes Kepler was an astronomer and mathematician who investigates planetary motion. In the solar system, Kepler found that the planets move with speed is not constant, but move faster when close to the sun than when far from the Sun (Serway, 2018). Using precise mathematical relationships between the periods of the planets and the average distance from the sun, Kepler was able to conclude in the laws of planetary motion, which became known as Kepler’s laws.

3.1.1. Kepler’s First Law

Kepler’s first law states that all planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun as one focus (Serway, 2018).