The effect of digital eco-learning in student worksheet flipbook to environmental project literacy and pedagogic competency


Sumarmi1 , Muhammad Aliman1 , Tuti Mutia2

1Universitas Negeri Malang (Indonesia)
2Universitas Hamzanwadi (Indonesia)

Received December 2020

Accepted May 2021


The study aimed to determine 1) the effect of digital eco learning in student worksheet flipbooks on environmental literacy projects, and 2) the effect of digital eco learning in student worksheet flipbooks on student ecological competence. The research is a quasi-experimental study using a Pretest-Posttest Non‑equivalent Control Group. The research subjects were students in the Environmental Geography course semester 6 of 2020, divided into the experimental and control groups. The research was conducted at the Geography Education study program, Social Science Faculty, State University of Malang, Indonesia. Data were analyzed using the independent sample t-test in SPSS version 21 for windows. The results found: 1) there is a significant effect of digital eco learning with student worksheet flipbook on environmental project literacy competence, and 2) there is a significant effect of digital eco learning with student worksheet flipbooks on ecological competence. The use of digital eco-learning helps students get to know the environment quickly by using a flipbook worksheet without having to reduce their pedagogical and environmental literacy skills.


Keywords - Eco-learning, Student worksheet flipbook, Environmental project literacy, Pedagogic competency, Environmental geography.

To cite this article:

Sumarmi, Aliman, M., & Mutia, T. (2021). The effect of digital eco-learning in student worksheet flipbook to environmental project literacy and pedagogic competency. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 11(2), 357-370.



    1. 1. Introduction

Education must teach the values of caring society to students. The issues should be part of the universities’ curriculum to educate prospective teachers (Grigorov, 2012). Many things can be used for a sustainable environment, one of which is through eco-learning or environmental education. Many learning models can develop student environmental awareness, including: Earth science in community learning (earthcomm) (Aliman, Budijanto, Sumarmi, & Astina, 2019), the effect of TREEhouse Model for experiential learning to improve environmental understanding of agricultural graduate students at Dalhousie University (Corscadden & Kevany, 2017). Also, problem-based service learning and problem-based learning can improve environmental awareness attitudes (Amin, Utaya, Bachri, Sumarmi & Susio, 2020; Sumarmi, Bachri, Baidowi & Aliman, 2020). According to (Kahn, 2008), eco-learning trains students to analyze ecological issues such as global warming, floods, landslides, depletion of natural resources, poverty, and others. Environmental education aims to raise awareness, increase sensitivity and awareness to maintain the environment (Aliman et al., 2019; Sumarmi et al., 2020). Increasing students’ sensitivity to the environment must be balanced with environmental literacy skills.

Current learning must include five categories of literacy skills in the 21st century: (1) Basic Literacy, such as reading, writing, and numerical calculations. (2) Computer literacy, such as skills, attitudes, and knowledge to understand and operate information and communication technology, including personal computers (PCs), laptops, and cell phones, computer literacy is divided into hardware and software. (3) Media Literacy, such as skills, attitudes, and knowledge to understand and utilize various media and information formats communicated from sender to receivers, such as images, sound, and videos. (4) Distance Learning and E‑Learning Literacy, the ability to use telecommunications networks, especially the world wide web and the internet, as virtual classrooms instead of physical classrooms. (5) Cultural Literacy (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1992).

Digital eco-learning with this flipbook worksheet is closely related to computer literacy, media literacy, distance learning, and e-learning literacy. Various forms of online learning are often called web-based learning (Bele & Rugelj, 2009). Jolliffe, Ritter and Stevens (2012) as well as application or platform-based learning such as e-learning (Clark & Mayer, 2011; Garrison, 2011), Google Classroom (Al-Maroof & Al‑Emran, 2018; Iftakhar, 2016). The Flipbook application is software that can convert files in PDF format (McBeth & Volk, 2009). This software can input data in images, videos, music, keys, animations, and even links to other sources into one. Besides converting PDF format files, this software can convert Words, PowerPoint, and Excel with more varied output formats such as EXE, HTML, ZIP, and APP. So, it can be used on students’ smartphones, laptops, and PCs. The flipbook application can be used as a medium or a tool to visualize concepts that tend to be abstract, theoretical and improve critical thinking skills (Riyanto, Amin, Suwono & Lestari, 2020).

By developing student worksheet flipbook, it is very easy to use in eco-learning so that it can increase environmental project literacy. Eco-learning can improve ecological competence, increase awareness, knowledge, and skills in making decisions on environmental problems (Aquilina, 2001; Omran, Iraj & Yarmohammadian, 2016). The statement is supported by research stated that environment-based learning helps students build human intelligence constructs to interact with nature by maintaining interests in going forward (Tulalessy, 2016). Other research stated that learning based on local environmental problems effectively increases students’ ecological competence (Muhaimin, 2015). Eco-learning camps can also build awareness and concern for the environment, this activity, also aims to take real action in protecting the environment (Arent, Sumarmi, Utomo & Ruja, 2020; Ghosh, 2014; Hayati, Utaya & Astina, 2016; Napitupulu, 2015; Susanti & Rachmawati, 2018). In addition, other research also stated that the application of flipbooks can improve students’ critical thinking skills (Bozkurt & Bozkaya, 2015; Riyanto et al., 2020).

However, research that examined digital eco-learning in students’ worksheets flipbooks, environmental literacy projects, and student ecological competence has not been widely studied. Based on this statement, this study aimed to determine: 1) the effect of digital eco-learning in the student worksheet flipbook book on environmental literacy projects; 2) the effect of digital eco-learning in the student worksheet flipbook book on pedagogical competence.

2. Theoretical Underpinnings

Tinsley (Sumarmi, 2012) state that the development of environmental literacy projects suggested that digital eco-learning for environmental project literacy improves fieldwork skills, laboratory work, ability to collect data, organize data, analyze data, and make presentations on solving environmental problems. Environmental project literacy learning emphasizes solving authentic problems that occur daily through learning experiences in society, including environmental problems (McBeth & Volk, 2009). The characteristics of this learning activity are long, interdisciplinary, learner-centered, and integrated with real‑world issues and practices (Ghosh, 2014).

The use of the Flipbook application to explain theoretical or abstract material is stable (Nurseto, 2011). Visualizing the Flipbook application topic can provide new learning experiences for students in the learning process (Asmi, 2018). Flipbooks can develop critical thinking skills in high school students in Indonesia (Abdurrahman, Setyaningsih & Jalmo, 2019) and improve students’ critical thinking in Indonesia (Riyanto et al., 2020). Flipped classrooms in urban general secondary students in America show increased motivation (Dixon & Wendt, 2021). The flipped strategy also significantly improves student academic achievement in Jordan (Elian & Hamaidi, 2018), and in Oman (Al-Maroof & Al-Emran, 2018). Flipped classrooms also positively impact student learning performance and perceptions in Thailand (Santikarn & Wichadee, 2018). Also, flipbooks can improve students’ understanding of geography concepts (Suryani, 2015). The components of eco-learning can be seen in the following table (Grigorov, 2012; Sumarmi, 2012).

Based on Table 1, it can be explained that eco-learning is flexible learning. Eco-learning makes it easy for students to learn anywhere and anytime (Ghosh, 2014; Hayati et al., 2016). Eco-learning has a learning principle that students can still get knowledge inside and outside the classroom. Although eco-learning makes learning easier, several challenges can be a barrier for students. The project literacy challenges in eco-learning can be seen in Table 2 (Sumarmi, 2012).


Principles and Pedagogical Strategies in Eco-learning


Learning everywhere. Availability of learning materials, assignments, and results anytime and anywhere allow flexibility and continuity of learning. Learning through multiple media sources to enrich demonstrations and match different student learning styles. Students can edit, update, and enrich the topic.


Students are teacher partners that actively involved in learning


Communication can be through in class, online synchronous, and online asynchronous. Discussions with lecturers and fellow students, both about material content and project completion


Mapping collaboration to create more effective learning


Lessons are carried out to achieve the project’s environmental literacy. The collaborative effect in asynchronous learning with peers


The assessment paradigm in learning self-assessment, assessment by group members, and assessment by the classroom community (peer assessment). Authentic assessment is carried out on performance, resulting in face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous

Table 1. Components of the Flipbook in Eco-Learning Learning

Primary categories

Studying Challenges

Overload and stress

Learning schedule

Competition in working on and completing projects

Communication skills

Pedagogical competence

Collaborative learning

Cooperation in groups

Cooperation between groups

Social-emotional thinking skills

Interdependence and reciprocity

Change and adaptation

Study habits

Technological difficulties

Pedagogical design

Motivation for active learning

Project the ones with the latest and contextual issues

Learning regulation

Organizing and planning the learning process


Table 2. Challenges for Literacy Project and the Pedagogical Competencies Formation

Based on the challenges in project literacy, exercises are needed to approach the problems of eco-learning. Exercises can provide benefits for students (Riyanto et al., 2020; Sumarmi, 2012) as shown in the following Table 3.

The application of eco-learning is expected to provide changes to students’ basic competencies in improving environmental problems. Providing knowledge can change students’ attitudes and skills regarding environmental problems (Aliman et al., 2019). Ecological aspects can be used to assess the understanding of the interactions between humans and the environment. Humans have a mutual relationship, are interrelated, and influence the environment (Fauzi, Muryani & Santosa, 2018). Besides, ecological intelligence is a student competency based on the knowledge and skills related to nature which every behavior and action has an impact on the natural environment (Supriatna, 2016).

Primary categories

Secondary categories

Learning rules

1. Self-learning strategies

2. Learning management skills

3. Learning responsibility

Collaboration and communication

1. Collaboration and communication in learning

2. Strategies for developing collaboration in learning

3. Social-emotional management skills

4. Collaboration and Communication about learning content

Personal and group benefits

1. Self-development

2. Knowledge and skills in using technology for material development

3. Set higher-order thinking skills


1. Designing better learning innovations

2. Various learning methods

3. Active learning

4. Learning is meaningful

Table 3. Benefits of Digital Eco-Learning with Student Worksheet Flipbook

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Subject

The research is a quasi-experimental study using pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design. The research subjects were students in Semester 6 of 2019/2020 consisting of two classes, class A as an experimental group of 33 people and class B as a control group of 33 people. The two classes were selected using the simple random sampling technique because they have the same learning outcomes. The research was conducted in the Environmental Geography course, in the Geography Education, Faculty of Social Science at State University of Malang, Indonesia, for 16 meetings, with 6 meetings conducted in the classroom and 10 meetings conducted through e-learning.

3.2. Implementation

In class A, learning was given treatment by applying a digital eco-learning model using a student worksheet flipbook. At the beginning of the meeting, students were given a pretest to determine their initial environmental project literacy and pedagogic competency skills. At the next meeting, the lecturer gave lectures through the zoom meeting application (Synchronous). Furthermore, the meeting was held asynchronously using the e-learning application ( Furthermore, students are guided to download worksheets through the e-learning site. The detailed activities showed in the following Figure 1.

Students are given tests related to the subject that has been studied and discussed at the final meeting. Students are also given posttests related to environmental project literacy skills and pedagogic competency for both the experimental and control groups.