Empirical verifications of web-learning environment to enhance learning effectiveness and motivation in mechanical drawing


Tsutomu Sekine

Seikei University (Japan)

Received October 2019

Accepted February 2020


In mechanical drawing class, it is a problem that a lecturer has students get a wide range of knowledge and skills in a class whose time and place are limited in a semester. The situation surrounding the classes has led to insufficient understanding of students. Accordingly, it has been desired to reveal an effective learning method in mechanical drawing class. In this study, a web-learning environment was created on the basis of motivation-oriented teaching method using ARCS model and Gagne’s 9 events of instruction. Then, the web-learning environment was introduced into mechanical drawing class, and the effectiveness was investigated with the comparison of results from paper-based and web-based tests. After that, learning motivation was also assessed using ARCS evaluation sheet. From the results, there existed the advantage of using web-learning environment. In addition, it was remarkable that attention-related factors greatly contributed the enhancement of learning motivation.


Keywords – Mechanical drawing, E-learning, ARCS model, Gagne’s 9 events of instruction, Learning motivation.

To cite this article:

Sekine, T. (2020). Empirical verifications of web-learning environment to enhance learning effectiveness and motivation in mechanical drawing. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 10(2), 179-189. https://doi.org/10.3926/jotse.856



    1. 1. Introduction

Among various subjects with respect to mechanical engineering, design and drawing allow students to learn important knowledge and skills related to manufacturing. The knowledge and skills are particularly essential to obtain a design solution satisfying required specification for designing a machine in practice. Although the time of education is not necessarily sufficient, the course hours have been gradually decreasing. The fact indicates that it is getting difficult for students to learn a wide range of knowledge and skills in mechanical design and drawing. The tendency will probably continue from now on, so that the students’ understanding would inevitably deteriorates more and more. From the backgrounds, there are studies with many kinds of viewpoints regarding design and drawing. Huerta, Kus, Unver, Aslan, Dawood, Kofoglu et al. (2019) developed an AR/VR application to support the learning and teaching of design and engineering students in education and industry. Azodo (2017) studied the effects of attitude related to engineering students’ learning in engineering drawing. Halim, Yasin and Ishar (2012) discussed students’ and teachers’ perception on an innovative teaching method of engineering drawing subject at secondary school level. In addition, they reported the effects of teaching problem-solving strategies in the engineering drawing subject on student achievement, students’ knowledge of problem‑solving and students’ problem-solving skills (Yasin, Halim & Ishar, 2012). Katz (2015) proposed integrated thinking as a new approach and showed how it can be applied to various mechanical engineering courses for undergraduate students. Adanez and Velasco (2002) gave an investigation of a visualization psychometric test that could facilitate an early diagnosis concerning the academic performance of technical drawing students. dos Santos, Gonçalves, de Oliveira and Silva (2018) reported a new structure in the educational methodology related to project-based learning. However, the efficient learning environment has been still desired to provide instructive opportunities for not only overcoming the related problems but also obtaining a lot of knowledge and skills within a reasonable time scale.

These days, various information technologies for education are being widely used to enhance the learning and teaching effectiveness. Especially, e-learning is well known as a useful method with several merits. To name a few, we can learn what we want to know without a lecturer. It can provide ubiquitous learning environment available from mobile devices. The system enables us to use a wide variety of learning contents. Individual-oriented instructions also act as a helpful function in some cases. In creating a web‑learning environment, each component such as web design is created situationally with learning theory to enhance both learning motivation and learning effectiveness.

Gagne’s theory of instruction is one of the effective theories in education. The related works have been reported so far in a variety of fields. Baba, Sale and Zirra (2017) created student–centered learning environment designed using Gagne’s theory of instruction, and the multimedia program was applied to education in secondary school. Mei, Ramli and Alhirtani (2015) studied Gagne’s nine approaches in teaching Arabic to non-native speakers. Their work led to the importance in education and teaching. Lee and Lee (2012) developed e-learning content for advertising theory applying Gagné’s nine events of Instruction. The content worked properly in the advertising classes. Khadjooi, Rostami and Ishaq (2011) investigated the applicability of Gagne’s model of instructional design in teaching psychomotor skills. Gagne’s strategy was also used to a development of a conceptual understanding in mathematics (Erlinda & Surya, 2017). Kutlu and Menzi (2013) examined the effect of internet-based instruction with Gagne’s theory in primary schools. Cheung (2016) also studied a teaching method with Gagne’s theory for medical procedure. Al-Shalabi, Andraws, Alrabea and Kumar (2012) proposed a V model of E-learning using the well-known Gagne nine steps for quality education.

Meanwhile, ARCS model was proposed by Keller (1987). ARCS stands for Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction. The model is one of the useful tools for instructional design to improve learning motivation directly. The overview was given by Arora and Sharma (2018), and many types of contribution have been made with ARCS model. The relationship between ARCS model and persuasive strategies was investigated to provide empirical insight into the mechanism through which persuasive technologies persuade (Orji, Reilly, Oyibo & Orji, 2018). Zhang (2017) designed a micro-lecture teaching platform based on ARCS model. The results showed the suitable characteristics of platform. Lee and Kim (2012) developed Web-based courseware using ARCS model for lower elementary level, number sense concepts. Effectiveness of ARCS Model of Motivational Design was discussed to overcome the motivational problem of distance learning students (Malik, 2014). Huett, Kalinowski, Moller and Huett (2008) examined the improvement of motivation and retention of online students through the use of ARCS-based e-mails. Kurt and Keçik (2017) studied the effects of ARCS model on students’ motivation to learn English. Although these approaches have been demonstrated to be very useful in education, authors are unaware of the applied study of ARCS model in mechanical design and drawing.

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the availability of two educational approaches in mechanical drawing education. In this study, a web-learning environment with instruction of the third angle projection method was created based on motivation-oriented teaching method using ARCS model and Gagne’s 9 events of instruction. Then, it was introduced into a mechanical drawing class for Japanese students in our university. After that, the effectiveness was investigated with the comparison of results from two types of evaluation tests. Moreover, the influence of web-learning environment on learning motivation was clarified by questionnaire investigation with a modified ARCS evaluation sheet.

2. Design of a Web Learning Environment for Mechanical Drawing

There are a lot of research works associated with ARCS model (e.g., Keller, 2010). As one of the outcomes, a motivation-oriented instruction and design procedure were proposed from a problem-solving perspective of learning motivation (Suzuki, 1995). Gagne’s 9 events of instruction have drawn academic attention in pedagogical field since it can enhance students’ learning motivation. With the proposed strategy, the related studies have been conducted to reveal learning effectiveness from various viewpoints (e.g., Suzuki, 2000; Wang, Ikeda & Li, 2007). Web-learning environment developed in this study was created based on the two instructional design theories. We created web-learning environment through applying some illustrations extracted partially from a test book for mechanical drawing (Hayashi, 2013). The purpose of creating a website was to enhance learning effectiveness and learning motivation of students attending a class of mechanical drawing in our university.

Top page is firstly displayed as shown in Figure 1 when a user accesses the website. This page expresses the site map used for website’s design. The learning contents were classified into several topics in the site map. This website design is useful to learn and search what learner would like to know repeatedly. The next page was designed as shown in Figure 2. This page is placed on Lesson 1. Here, example problem is provided to make learners aware of learning objective. Essential information is subsequently given in Lesson 2. Figure 3 expresses a part of Lesson 2. The third angle projection method is explained with effective illustrations to assist an understanding of projection drawing method. In addition, some video contents were prepared as shown in Figure 4. The deficient information in two-dimensionally displayed contents is complemented by using the contents, and they enable us to learn practical drawing techniques in mechanical design. A learner can intuitively interpret essentials through the contents in each webpage based on problem-solving approach.


Figure 1. The top page of website


Figure 2. The partial appearance of example problem and learning objective in Lesson 1





Figure 3. The partial appearance of learning contents in Lesson 2. (a) A partial explanation of the third angle projection method. (b) A schematic illustration for suitable selection of projection drawing


Figure 4. An example of video contents to learn the third angle projection method

Lesson 3 illustrates essential information for 3-view drawing. After that, Lesson 4 provides several problems similar to the example problem in Lesson 1. One of the problems is shown in Figure 5. This page is very useful to give learners experience of various exercises. The practices can be repeatedly implemented for 3-view drawing based on the third angle projection method; moreover, these answers are checkable with reference to video contents as exhibited in Figure 6. Finally, evaluation test is given in Lesson 5 to check learner’s understanding for the third angle projection method. Figure 7 shows an example of the tests. The test was also designed for a practicality evaluation of web-learning environment used in mechanical drawing class. The answers are quickly saved to a file on a cloud system.

The other advantages were made for further convenience. In each page, the hyperlink for next page is placed on the bottom of current page. We can accordingly go to the next web page by using the hyperlinks. The page for summary was also designed to give a rise to learners’ interest in mechanical design. In addition, the page for inquiry was created for learners who would like to get the advanced information.